Pre- and post-test results: When the pre- or post-test is ultimately associated to the impact seen within the examine, such that the cause-and-effect relationship disappears with out these added checks Threat to External Validity. Evaluation research and systematic reviews would benefit from reporting guidelines for external validity to ensure that key information is reported across studies. The external validity refers to the degree in which the experimental results of an empirical invention can be generalized to and across the individuals, settings, and time involvement. Things are slightly different, however, in Qualitative research.. In Quantitative research, reliability refers to consistency of certain measurements, and validity – to whether these measurements “measure what they are supposed to measure”. It can be divided into a population and ecological validities (“Threats to Internal & External Validity.,” n.d.). External validity refers to the extent to which the research findings based on a sample of individuals or objects can be generalized to the same population that the sample is taken from or to other similar populations in terms of contexts, individuals, times, and settings. Steps in Ensuring Validity. Focus groups tend to be strong on validity. 2017 Aug;41(4):283-325. doi: 10.1177/0193841X16665199. External validity is the process of examining the results and questioning whether there are any other possible causal relationships. Increasing Internal and External Validity. Criterion-related validity indicates the extent to which the instrument’s scores correlate with an external criterion (i.e., usually another measurement from a different instrument) either at present (concurrent validity) or in the future (predictive validity). For focus groups, this could mean whether it is reasonably certain that people are talking about what you think they are talking about. validity is a justification (part of assessment process) - how you validate? Strategies to improve reliability and validity need to be done during the research process –Post hoc processes can assess reliability and validity but they can’t improve them –“Reliability and validity are actively attained, rather than proclaimed by an external reviewer.” Be … If your research lacks external validity, the findings cannot be applied to contexts other than the one in which you carried out your research. This may seem like a fuzzy measure of validity to someone disciplined in quantitative research, for example, but in a science that deals in themes and context, these questions are important. What is Validity and Reliability in Qualitative research? 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